This second joint policy brief, produced by the United Nations University (UNU) and the Nansen Initiative, examines the available options for coordinating and linking human mobility issues with climate change–related policies and planning, in particular, the development of national adaptation plans (NAPs).
Table of contents
Part I: Reducing vulnerability and integrating adaptation into new and existing policies on mobility
1. Introduction; Human mobility and adaptation to climate change; Key terms and concepts
2. National Adaptation Plans and building adaptive capacity; Integrating migration, displacement and planned relocation into adaptation considerations; Integrating adaptation into migration, displacement and planned relocation considerations
Part II: Current experience with adaptation planning and human mobility
3. Taking stock of human mobility in initial National Adaptation Programmes of action and plans; NAPAs and reducing factors that can drive “vulnerable migration” and displacement
4. Migration with dignity: preparing for human mobility within National Adaptation Planning: The Republic of Kiribati
5. Results from Nansen Initiative Regional Consultations
Part III: Emerging technical guidelines for adaptation planning and human mobility
6. Overview of the International Organization for Migration’s guidelines for integrating migration into the National Adaptation Planning Process
7. National Adaptation and planning for relocation; Planned relocation in the context of adaptation to climate change; Guidelines and considerations for planned relocation in adaptation planning
Part IV: Outlook for adaptation planning and human mobility
8. Challenges for integrating human mobility into National Adaptation Plans
9. Gaps in understanding and the need for additional research
10. Practical, evidence-based ways to address human mobility in National Adaptation Plans
As part of IOM’s annual International Dialogue on Migration – dedicated in 2011 to the theme The Future of Migration: Building Capacities for Change – the IOM membership selected the topic "Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration" as the focus of a workshop in Geneva, Switzerland on 29 and 30 March 2011. The workshop identified some of the main areas in which governments and institutions may need to reinforce their capacities to manage the complex interactions between climate change and environmental degradation and human mobility. The workshop was framed by the notion that a comprehensive approach to managing environmental migration would aim to minimize to the extent possible forced migration resulting from environmental factors; where forced migration does occur, to ensure assistance and protection for those affected and seek durable solutions to their situation; and, lastly, to facilitate the role of migration as an adaptation strategy to climate change.
The following four main areas for capacity-building received particular emphasis during the workshop: 1) Knowledge base and research capacity on environmental migration; 2) Capacities to devise solid legal and institutional frameworks to ensure the protection of those on the move for environmental reasons; 3) Capacities for comprehensive migration management policies to tackle the multifaceted impacts of climate change and environmental degradation on human mobility; 4) Technical and operational capacities to support vulnerable populations and promote effective migration management in the context of environmental changes.
The environment has always been a driver of migration, as people flee to survive natural disasters or, faced with harsh and deteriorating environmental conditions, move to seek opportunities elsewhere. Climate change is expected to exacerbate sudden- and slow-onset disasters and gradual environmental degradation. Through these impacts, climate change is already influencing migration around the world.
IOM applies its comprehensive migration management approach to the linkages between migration, climate change and the environment. Sustainable development is recognized as an integral part of this approach, implemented through disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation measures. Through its activities, IOM helps to reduce the vulnerability of populations exposed to environmental risk factors, assists populations on the move as a result of disasters and environmental change, and builds the capacities of governments and other actors to face the challenge of environmental migration. Since 2000, more than 500 projects have been funded as part of IOM’s response to environmental migration.
Asia's cities have been the drivers of the economy and have lifted millions out of poverty. However, the environmental consequences of this rapid development are apparent, and the citizens of Asia’s urban areas are increasingly insistent that something should be done. And there is an investment deficit in Asian cities’ infrastructure spending, mostly in environmental infrastructure, of some $100 billion per annum.